Stochastic dynamic programming applied to multiple reservoir systems
PereraB.J. Chrysanthus
2018
The increased water demand and the increased capital construction costs of water resource development projects force engineers and water planners to utilize efficiently the existing and proposed water resources systems. Hence, it is considered necessary to find the optimum real time operating rules for systems of multiple reservoirs.Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) has been used as the tool for deriving the real time operating rules for a system of multiple reservoirs, in preference to simulation analysis and linear programming. This is because the operation of the storages is considered as a sequential decision problem and dynamic programming is well suited to handle sequential, multi-period type decision problems. Further, the stochastic nature of streamflow is considered explicitly through a multivariate distribution for streamflow. The method theoretically produces the global optimum solution.The computational difficulties in terms of computer time and memory space have prohibited the realistic application of this method to systems of multiple reservoirs in the past. In this study, two methods have been introduced to reduce the computational difficulties of the method, thus making SDP more attractive to use in the derivation of the real time operating rules for a system of multiple reservoirs.The first method, the assumption of cross correlation of streamflow, reduces the number of states in the SDP method which reduces computer time and memory space. Further, it reduces the number of conditional probability estimates of streamflow which are used in recursive relation of the SDP algorithm. The second method, the “corridor” approach, reduces computer time involved in the SDP method by eliminating the computation of infeasible and/or inferior (suboptimal) solutions. These two methods have resulted in significant savings in the computer effort of the SDP method.The conditional probabilities of streamflow are computed by considering the hypervolume under the conditional probability density function between the integration limits using the computationally efficient Gaussian Legendre quadrature method. The conditional probability density function is derived from the historical streamflow data.Real time operating rules are expressed as a function of the storage volume(s) at the beginning of the current time interval and the forecast inflow into the storage(s) during the current time interval.The Melbourne water supply system is used as the example. The derived operating rules have been tested by operating a simulation model and the conclusion is made that the SDP method is a satisfactory technique for objectively deriving real time operating rules for a system of multiple reservoirs.Finally, a combined stochastic dynamic programming – statistical disaggregation approach is introduced to determine the real time operating rules for a system of multiple reservoirs where operational data are available. Releases from individual storages are a function of the total system storage volume and inflow. The method uses SDP to determine the release rules from the equivalent single reservoir of the multiple reservoir system; these releases are then disaggregated to individual releases using the statistical release disaggregation model whose parameters are derived from the historical operational data. The approach was used to derive real time operating rules for the Melbourne water supply system and the operating rules were validated using a simulation model of the system.