Is management-by-exception a single factor ?

2017-06-07T06:12:04Z (GMT) by Densten, Iain L. Gray, Judy
The current study examines the leadership behavior of Management-by-Exception by using quantitative and qualitative methods. By distinguishing between manifest (observable) and latent (unobservable) variables, the study enabled the concept of Management-by-Exception to be clarified. A sample of 480 senior police officers was used. The results support the notion that Management-by-Exception should be considered as a single latent variable. Qualitative analysis identified three manifest variables that are observable indicators of Management-of-Exception. Implications for investigating leadership using both quantitative and qualitative research methods are discussed.

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